Designated Supports

Designated supports, which are accessibility features of the assessments, are available for use by any student for whom the need has been indicated by an educator (or team of educators working with the parent/‌guardian and student). They are either provided as digitally delivered components of the test administration system (embedded) or separate from it (non-embedded). For example, masking is an embedded designated support for all online assessments; read aloud for Smarter Balanced for ELA items or the ELPAC Writing domain is a non-embedded designated support.

Designated supports are available for the listed, approved assessments and do not change the construct of what is being assessed. Students who receive these accessibility resources will receive a valid score.

Designated supports for all assessments except for the Initial ELPAC are set in TOMS by an LEA CAASPP or ELPAC coordinator or CAASPP or ELPAC test site coordinator. For the Initial ELPAC, designated supports may be selected in the student’s Test Settings screen in the Test Administrator Interface.

Embedded

Color Contrast

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All (online assessments)

Description:

The adjustment of screen background or font color is based on student needs or preferences and set in TOMS for the student. Color contrast may include reversing the colors for the entire interface or choosing the color of font and background. Choices are as follows:

  • reverse contrast
  • black on rose
  • medium gray on light gray
  • yellow on blue

The sample in figure 1 shows reverse contrast.

Screen capture of a sample question with the color contrast reversed, so that the interface is black and the text is white.

Figure 1. Color contrast (reverse contrast)

Use:

A student with attention difficulties may need this resource for viewing test content.

  • It also may be needed by a student with visual impairment or other print disability (including a learning disability).
  • Choice of colors should be informed by evidence that color selections meet the student’s needs.

Masking

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All (online assessments)

Description:

Masking involves blocking off content that is not of immediate need or that may be distracting to the student. Students are able to focus their attention on a specific part of a test question by masking. In figure 2, the [Masking] button is indicated, and an arrow indicates the masked portion of the answer options.

Screen capture of a sample student question with masking (i.e., a black box) applied to a portion of the answer options. The [Masking] button is also called out and the [Zoom Out] and [Zoom In] buttons are visible.

Figure 2. Masking

Use:

A student with attention difficulties may need to mask content not of immediate need or that may be distracting during the assessment.

  • This resource also may be needed by a student with a print disability (including a learning disability) or visual impairment.
  • Masking allows a student to hide and reveal individual answer options, as well as all navigational buttons and menus.

Mouse Pointer (Size and Color)

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All (online assessments)

Description:

Mouse pointer is a test setting for students who are visually impaired and need the mouse pointer to be larger or a different color to more readily find their mouse pointer on the screen.

An enlarged mouse pointer is shown in figure 3.

Screen capture showing an enlarged mouse pointer in the shape of an arrow head on a practice test question

Figure 3. Mouse pointer

While the mouse pointer resource can be used with the zoom universal tool, the enlarged mouse pointer is built into the magnification universal tool.

What follows are the options for the mouse pointer designated support:

  • Large, Black Mouse Pointer
  • Extra Large, Black Mouse Pointer
  • Large, Green Mouse Pointer
  • Extra Large, Green Mouse Pointer
  • Large, Red Mouse Pointer
  • Extra Large, Red Mouse Pointer
  • Large, White Mouse Pointer
  • Extra Large, White Mouse Pointer
  • Large, Yellow Mouse Pointer
  • Extra Large, Yellow Mouse Pointer

Pause or Replay Audio (Listening Domain)

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Summative ELPAC (online assessments)
  • Initial ELPAC (online assessments)

Description:

Students who may need the audio to slow down or stop momentarily may have the stimulus of the audio presentation in the Listening domain be paused or replayed during the administration of the test questions. A sample of the [Pause] button is presented in figure 4.

sample audio controls interface with the Pause button displayed

Figure 4. [Pause] button in the audio controls interface

Pause or Replay Audio (Speaking Domain)

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Summative ELPAC (online assessments)
  • Initial ELPAC (online assessments)

Description:

Students who may need the audio to slow down or stop momentarily may have the stimulus of the audio presentation in the Speaking domain paused or replayed during the administration of the test questions in the Summarize an Academic Presentation task. A sample of the [Pause] button is presented in figure 5.

sample audio controls interface with the Pause button displayed

Figure 5. [Pause] button in the audio controls interface

Permissive Mode (Setting)

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All (online assessments)

Description:

Permissive mode is a test setting that should be enabled for students who require access to approved accessibility software, devices, or both in order to interact with the test (e.g., screen readers, magnifiers, speech-to-text, braille screen readers, refreshable braille displays, etc.). When permissive mode is disabled, the only application that can be open on the computer is the secure browser.

Print Size (Setting)

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All (online assessments)

Description:

Print size is a test setting that sets the default font size the student should have when starting an online test. This setting applies to text questions and stimuli only and not the buttons in the global menu bar.

  • The selected font size becomes the default for all questions in that student’s test.
  • The default font size for all tests is 14 point.
  • The default font for ELA assessments is Times New Roman.
  • The default font for mathematics tests is Verdana.
  • The default font for the ELPAC in grades two through twelve is Verdana.
  • The default font for the ELPAC in kindergarten and grade one is Comic Neue.

Stacked Translations (Spanish)

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Smarter Balanced for Mathematics
  • CAST

Description:

Stacked translations are a language resource for some students. They provide the full translation of each test question in Spanish above the original question in English as well as all on-screen directions in Spanish.

A practice test question using the stacked translation designated support is shown in figure 6.

Screen capture of a sample test question with stacked translations visible. The question and each answer option include both the original Spanish version followed by the English translation.

Figure 6. Stacked translations, mathematics

Use:

This resource is for a student whose primary language is not English, who uses dual language supports in the classroom, or both. For this student, use of the stacked (dual language) translation may be appropriate.

  • A student participates in the assessment regardless of the language.
  • This resource will increase reading load and cognitive load.
  • This resource should be used only for a student who is a proficient reader in Spanish and not proficient in English.
  • Because this resource will likely be confusing and may impede the performance of students who have not used it previously, a student to whom stacked translations have been assigned should use it in a practice or training test to ensure its appropriateness.
  • Stacked translations in Spanish are available in conjunction with the embedded translated test directions in Spanish.
  • The use of this designated support may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Streamline

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All (online assessments)

Description:

This designated support provides a streamlined interface of the test in an alternate, simplified format in which the questions are displayed below the stimuli vertically; it is designed to interact with JAWS® navigation.

This designated support includes zoom levels greater than 3× in the student interface. The sample in figure 7 shows a full-screen zoom that includes navigation buttons and a question passage.

Screen capture of a sample question using the streamline designated support; test buttons appear in simplified form, with a dialog box providing a simple definition of the selected tool's use.

Figure 7. Streamline sample

Use:

This designated support may benefit one of a small number of students who has a specific learning disability, a reading disability, or both, in which the text is presented in a more sequential format.

Text-to-Speech

(Refer also to the embedded text-to-speech accommodation for ELA reading passages.)

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Smarter Balanced for ELA (items only)
  • Smarter Balanced for Mathematics (stimuli and items)
  • CAST (stimuli and items)
  • CSA (items)
  • Summative ELPAC (except for the Reading domain)
  • Initial ELPAC (except for the Reading domain)

Description:

Text for stimuli, items, or both items and stimuli—depending on the assessment type—is read aloud to the student via embedded text-to-speech technology that uses a simulated, not a human, voice. The student is able to control the speed as well as raise or lower the volume of the voice via a volume control.

Use:

A student who is a struggling reader may need assistance accessing the assessment by having all or portions of the assessment read aloud. To use this designated support, the student must select either Speak Question or Speak Option from the context menu (indicated in figure 8).

Screen capture of a sample test question, with the context menu displayed and the Speak Option and Speak Question tools called out.

Figure 8. Text-to-speech

  • This resource also may be needed by a student who
    • has a reading-related disability,
    • is a struggling reader, or
    • is blind and does not yet have adequate braille skills.
  • A student would need to use this support regularly during instruction to meaningfully benefit from it on assessments.
  • Simulated voices may not provide the same emphasis and other qualities of a natural, human voice when reading.
  • A student who uses text-to-speech will need headphones unless tested individually in a separate setting.

The technical coordinator at the LEA or test site should ensure that the network bandwidth at the test site is sufficient to support the number of students who will be using this resource concurrently during testing.

Limitations:

On specific CSA multiple-choice questions, the student may be asked about a portion of the text that may need to be revised. For these questions, students will be presented with four answer choices, each with different versions of the written text. Each answer choice will be followed by a repetition of the answer choice in context of the original excerpt. The answer choices in context are preceded by introductory statements such as, “La oración con cambio, lee” or “La definición lee.” In some instances, students may want to navigate word-by-word or character-by-character to discern any grammatical or punctuation errors, in addition to addressing any words that may not be pronounced clearly by an assistive technology. Additional information about this portion of the test is included in the test directions.

Translated Test Directions (Spanish)

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Smarter Balanced for Mathematics
  • CAST

Description:

Translation of test directions is a language resource available prior to beginning the actual test questions.

  • Embedded test directions in Spanish are available in conjunction with the stacked translations in Spanish.
  • On-screen directions are in Spanish.
  • As an embedded designated support, translated test directions are automatically a part of the stacked translation designated support. Translated buttons are indicated in figure 9.

    Sample question with translated test directions, where the question is shown in Spanish and English, the context menu is open, and action buttons (in Spanish) are indicated

    Figure 9. Translated test directions

Use:

A student who has limited English language skills can use the translated directions resource.

  • This resource should be used only for a student who is a proficient reader in Spanish and not proficient in English.
  • Because this resource will likely be confusing and may impede the performance of students who have not used it previously, a student to whom stacked translations has been assigned should use it in a practice or training test to ensure its appropriateness.
  • The use of this designated support may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Translation Glossaries

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Smarter Balanced for Mathematics
  • CAST

Description:

Translated glossaries are a language resource.

  • The translated glossaries are provided for selected construct-irrelevant terms for mathematics.
  • Translations for these terms appear on the computer screen when students select them.
  • This designated support can be set as either an illustration glossary, the language of translation, or the language of translation and English.
  • Students can also select the audio icon next to the glossary term—indicated in figure 10—and listen to the audio recording of the glossary for language glossaries only.
  • In addition to the illustration glossary, current languages of translations for mathematics are as follows:
    • Arabic
    • Burmese
    • Cantonese
    • Hmong
    • Ilokano
    • Korean
    • Mandarin
    • Punjabi
    • Russian
    • Somali
    • Spanish
    • Tagalog
    • Ukrainian
    • Vietnamese
  • Current languages of translations for science are as follows:
    • Arabic
    • Cantonese
    • Hmong
    • Korean
    • Mandarin
    • Punjabi
    • Russian
    • Spanish
    • Tagalog
    • Vietnamese

Screen capture of the translation glossary, with the glossary dialog box displaying the definition of 'Add Point tool' in Cantonese. The [Volume] button is called out.

Figure 10. Translated glossary term

Use:

A student who has limited English language skills (whether or not designated as an English learner [ELs] or EL with a disability) can use the translation glossary for specific questions. The use of this designated support may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Turn Off Any Universal Tools

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All (online assessments)

Description:

Any universal tools that might be distracting or that students do not need to use or are unable to use may be disabled by the test administrator or test examiner in the Test Administrator Interface before a test is approved. Highlighter is an example of a universal tool that can be toggled off and is indicated in figure 11.

Screen capture of General Testing Tools test settings within the Test Administrator Interface, where highlighter is called out as an example of a universal tool that can be turned off

Figure 11. Turn off any universal tools

Use:

A student who is easily distracted (whether or not designated as having an attention difficulty or disability) may be overwhelmed by some of the universal tools. Knowing which specific resource may be distracting for the student is important for determining which universal tool(s) to turn off.

Non-Embedded

100s Number Table, Science

Approved Assessment(s):

  • CAA for Science
  • CAST

Description:

The 100s number table is a paper-based table listing numbers from 1–100 available for reference.

Use:

A student with visual processing or spatial perception needs may find this designated support beneficial.

ASL or Manually Coded English

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Summative ELPAC (Writing domain for kindergarten through grade two)
  • Initial ELPAC (Writing domain for kindergarten through grade two)

Description:

Students who are deaf or hard of hearing and who typically use Manually Coded English can have the test directions signed to them.

Use:

A student who is deaf or hard of hearing and who typically uses ASL may need this accommodation to receive the test directions.

  • The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.
  • For many students who are deaf or hard of hearing, viewing signs is the only way to access information presented orally. It is important to note, however, that some students who are hard of hearing will be able to listen to information presented orally if provided with appropriate amplification and a setting in which extraneous sounds do not interfere with clear presentation of the test directions.

Amplification

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All

Description:

Students may adjust the volume control beyond the testing device’s built-in settings using headphones or another non-embedded device.

Use:

A student with a hearing impairment may use headphones, assistive technology, noise buffers, or white noise machines to increase the volume provided in the test delivery system.

  • Use of this resource may require a separate setting.
  • If the amplification device has additional features that may compromise test security (such as internet access), the functionality should be disabled before testing.

Bilingual Dictionary

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Smarter Balanced for ELA (PT full writes)

Description:

A bilingual or dual language word-to-word dictionary is a language resource.

  • A bilingual or dual language word-to-word dictionary can be provided for the full write portion of an ELA PT.
  • A full write is the second part of a PT.
  • This designated support is for use with ELA full write PTs only.

Use:

For a student whose primary language is not English and who uses dual language supports in the classroom, use of a standard published bilingual or dual language word-to-word dictionary may be appropriate.

  • The student participates in the assessment regardless of the language.
  • The use of this designated support may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Calculator, Science

Description:

A non-embedded calculator may be used by students needing a special calculator, such as a braille calculator or a talking calculator, which is currently unavailable within the assessment platform. This designated support is for use by students in grade five with a four-function calculator; and grades eight, ten, eleven, and twelve with a scientific calculator.

Approved Assessment(s):

  • CAST

Use:

Students with visual impairment who are unable to use the embedded calculator for calculator-allowed questions may use the calculator they typically use, such as a braille calculator or a talking calculator. Test administrators should ensure that the calculator is available only for designated calculator questions.

Color Contrast

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All (online assessments)

Description:

Test content of online questions may be printed with different colors using a color printer. This non-embedded designated support must be used in conjunction with print-on-demand.

Use:

A student with attention difficulties may need this resource for viewing the test when digitally provided color contrasts do not meet the student’s needs.

  • A student with visual impairment or other print disability (including a learning disability) also may need this resource.
  • Choice of colors should be informed by evidence of those colors that meet the student’s needs.

Color Overlay

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All

Description:

Color transparencies are placed over a paper-based assessment, such as one that has been printed on demand.

Use:

A student with an attention difficulty may need this resource to view test content.

  • This resource also may be needed by a student with visual impairment or other print disability (including a learning disability).
  • Choice of color should be informed by evidence of those colors that meet the student’s needs.

Designated Interface Assistant

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Summative ELPAC (online assessments)
  • Initial ELPAC (online assessments)

Description:

This designated support is available to students who are technology novices and have limited keyboarding skills that prevent them from responding.

Use:

The DIA is available to help the student interact with, or type, hand-written responses into the test delivery system. The DIA support should be used only during one-on-one administration.

The DIA must follow approved guidelines in the Use Scenarios document.

Magnification

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All

Description:

The size of specific areas of the screen (e.g., text, formulas, tables, graphics, and navigation buttons) may be adjusted by the student with an assistive technology device. Magnification increases the size and color contrast of the student’s on-screen presentation to levels not provided by the zoom universal tool, color contrast designated support, mouse pointer designated support, or any combination of these.

Use:

A student accustomed to viewing enlarged text or graphics, or navigation buttons may need magnification to comfortably view content.

  • This resource also may meet the needs of a student with visual impairment or other print disability.
  • Because magnification increases the size and color contrast of the student’s on-screen presentation, the student may not need also to use the zoom universal tool, color contrast designated support, mouse pointer designated support, or any combination of these.
  • The use of this designated support may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Masking

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Summative ELPAC (online assessments)
  • Summative ELPAC (Writing domain for kindergarten through grade two)
  • Initial ELPAC (online assessments)
  • Initial ELPAC (Writing domain for kindergarten through grade two)

Description:

Masking involves blocking off content that is not of immediate need or that may be distracting to the student. Students are able to focus their attention on a specific part of a test question by masking.

Use:

A student with attention difficulties may need to mask content not of immediate need or that may be distracting during the assessment. This resource also may be needed by a student with a print disability (including a learning disability) or visual impairment.

Medical Supports

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All

Description:

Students may have access to an electronic device for medical purposes (e.g., glucose monitor). The device may include a cell phone and should only support the student during testing for medical reasons.

Use:

Follow local policies regarding medical devices and ensure a student’s health is the highest priority.

  • Device settings must restrict access to other applications, or the test administrator or test examiner must closely monitor the use of the device to maintain test security.
  • Use of electronic devices may require a separate setting to avoid distractions to other test takers and to ensure test security. For example, a student using a cell phone in conjunction with a wireless blood testing kit should be monitored to ensure the cell phone is used for medical reasons only during testing.

Multiplication Table, Science

Approved Assessment(s):

  • CAST
  • CAA for Science

Description:

A paper-based single-digit (1–12) multiplication table is a resource.

Use:

The multiplication table is for a student with a documented and persistent calculation disability (i.e., dyscalculia).

Noise Buffers

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All

Description:

Noise buffers are equipment such as ear mufflers, white noise machines, or other devices used to block external sounds.

Use:

A student (not groups of students) wears equipment to reduce environmental noises.

  • The student may have these testing variations if regularly used in the classroom.
  • The student who uses noise buffers will need headphones unless tested individually in a separate setting.

Print-on-Demand

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Summative ELPAC (online assessments)
  • Initial ELPAC (online assessments)

The ability to print on demand is available only if the LEA ELPAC coordinator has received permission by contacting CalTAC.

Description:

Paper copies of passages, stimuli, questions, or any combination of these are printed for students.

Use:

A student with a disability may need paper copies of passages, stimuli, questions, or any combination of these.

  • A very small percentage of students should need this accommodation.
  • The use of this accommodation may result in the student needing additional time to complete the assessment.
  • It is not necessary to request the print-on-demand accommodation when assigning the braille accommodation.

Read-Aloud in Spanish

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Smarter Balanced for Mathematics
  • CAST

Description:

Spanish text is read aloud to the student by a trained and qualified human reader who follows the administration guidelines provided by Smarter Balanced. All or portions of the content as presented in the Spanish stacked translation may be read aloud.

Use:

A Spanish-speaking student receiving the Translations (stacked) designated support and who is a struggling reader may need assistance accessing the assessment by having all or portions of the assessment read aloud.

  • This resource also may be needed by a student with a reading-related disability.
  • If not used regularly during instruction, this resource is likely to be confusing and may impede the performance on assessments.
  • A student should have the option of asking a reader to slow down or repeat text.
  • The use of this designated support may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment, the use of a separate setting, or both.

Read-Aloud Items

(Refer also to the non-embedded read-aloud accommodation for ELA reading passages.)

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Smarter Balanced for ELA
  • Smarter Balanced for Mathematics
  • CAST
  • CSA
  • Summative ELPAC (Writing domain only)
  • Initial ELPAC (Writing domain only)

Description:

Text is read aloud to the student by a trained and qualified human reader who follows the administration guidelines, such as those provided by Smarter Balanced. All or portions of the content may be read aloud.

Qualifications for test readers are as follows; this list is provided in the Smarter Balanced Usability, Accessibility, and Accommodations Guidelines:

  • The test reader should be an adult who is familiar with the student and who is typically responsible for providing this support during educational instruction and assessments.
  • Test readers must be trained on the administration of the assessment in accordance with member policy, and familiar with the terminology and symbols specific to the test content and related conventions for standard oral communication.
  • For the CAASPP, test readers must be trained in accordance with Smarter Balanced and member administration and security policies and procedures as articulated in Consortium and member test administration manuals, guidelines, and related documentation.

Use:

A student who is a struggling reader may need assistance accessing the assessment by having all or portions of the assessment read aloud.

  • This resource also may be needed by a student with a reading-related disability or a student who is blind and does not yet have adequate braille skills.
  • For mathematics, this resource applies to stimuli and questions.
  • If not used regularly during instruction, this resource is likely to be confusing and may impede the performance on assessments.
  • Readers should be provided to students on an individual basis, not to a group of students.
  • A student should have the option of asking a reader to slow down or repeat text.
  • The use of this designated support may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment, the use of a separate setting, or both.

Science Charts

Approved Assessment(s):

  • CAST

Description:

Students taking the grade eight and high school CAST assessments may refer to a state-approved, paper-based, periodic table of elements as a designated support in grades eight, ten, eleven, and twelve. Students taking the grade eight and high school CAST assessments may refer to a state-approved reference sheet. These resources are available for download as PDFs. Each reference sheet also is available as a BRF file for braille printing.

Students may alternatively use a different periodic table that they have been using in class and is listed in an IEP or Section 504 plan after a request for this use as an unlisted resource has been approved.

Scribe Items

(Refer also to the non-embedded scribe accommodation for writing.)

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Smarter Balanced for ELA (except for full write PT)
  • Smarter Balanced for Mathematics
  • CAA for ELA
  • CAA for Mathematics
  • CAA for Science
  • CAST
  • CSA

Description:

Students dictate their responses to a human who records verbatim what they dictate.

  • The scribe must be trained and qualified, and must follow the administration guidelines provided by Smarter Balanced.
  • This designated support is for use with mathematics, science, and reading and listening (i.e., nonwriting) ELA questions only; it does not apply to the ELA full write PT.

Use:

A student who has a documented significant motor or processing difficulty(ies), or who has had a recent injury (such as a broken hand or arm) that makes it difficult to produce responses, may need to dictate responses to a human, who then records the student’s responses verbatim. The use of this resource may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.

Separate Setting

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All

Description:

Test location is altered so that the student is tested in a setting different from that made available for most students.

Use:

A student who is easily distracted (or may distract others) in the presence of other students, for example, may need an alternate location to be able to take the assessment.

  • The separate setting may be in a different room that allows the student to work individually or among a smaller group or to use a device requiring voicing (e.g., a WhisperPhone) or use amplification.
  • The separate setting may include a calming device or support as recommended by educators or specialists.
  • The separate setting may be in the same room but in a specific location (for example, away from windows, doors, or pencil sharpeners; in a study carrel; near the teacher’s desk; or in the front of a classroom).
  • A student also may need specific adjustment to the testing environment to remove obstacles to a comfortable test experience.
  • A student may benefit from being in an environment that allows for movement, such as being able to walk around.
  • A student also may benefit from testing at a particular time of day.
  • A student using the amplification non-embedded designated support may need a separate setting to avoid disturbing other students who are testing.
  • Other adjustments to the testing environment include special lighting, acoustics, and adaptive furniture.
  • In some instances, a student may need to interact with instructional or test content outside of school, such as in a hospital.

Simplified Test Directions

Approved Assessment(s):

  • All

Description:

The test administrator or test examiner simplifies or paraphrases the test directions found in the test administration manual or DFA according to the Guidelines for Simplified Test Directions.

Use:

A student who needs additional support understanding the test directions may benefit from this resource. This designated support may require testing in a separate setting to avoid distracting other test takers.

Translated Test Directions

Approved Assessment(s):

  • Smarter Balanced for ELA
  • Smarter Balanced for Mathematics
  • CAST
  • Summative ELPAC (online assessments)
  • Summative ELPAC (Writing domain for kindergarten through grade two)
  • Initial ELPAC (online assessments)
  • Initial ELPAC (Writing domain for kindergarten through grade two)

Description:

A student uses a PDF of directions translated in each of the languages currently supported.

Use:

A student who has limited English language skills (whether or not designated as an EL or EL with a disability) can use the translated test directions.

  • In addition, a biliterate adult trained in the test administration manual or DFA can read the test directions to the student.
  • The use of this designated support may result in the student needing additional overall time to complete the assessment.